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  • Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilians killed, injured, or imprisoned by military action. Civilian casualties can be associated with the outcome of any form of military action regardless of whether civilians were targeted directly or not. Some researchers have included refugees and internally displaced persons in their definition of "civilian casualty". Civilian casualties occurs as a result of military actions such as the widespread use of weapons of mass destruction by all major belligerents during the First World War. Though officers on both sides of the conflict maintained that the use of chemical weapons was only limited on the battlefield, strong winds frequently blew the poison gases on nearby civilian towns. Since civilians didn't had warning systems as well having access to effective gas masks, they were at high risk of being exposed to deadly poison gas effects. An estimated 100,000-260,000 civilians were either killed or wounded by chemical weapons during the First World War and tens of thousands of more died from scarring of the lungs, skin damage, and cerebral damage in the years after the conflict ended.