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  • The Constitution of the Republic of China is the fundamental law of the Republic of China, which since 1949 only controls the free area of the Republic of China, which is the island of Taiwan and minor outlying islands, the territories not lost to the Chinese Communists. It was Adopted by the National Constituent Assembly on 25 December 1946, and went into effect on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied. This made China the most populous "paper democracy" in the world. The latest revision to the constitution was in April 2000. Drafted by the Kuomintang as part of its third stage of national development, it established a centralized republic with five branches of government. Though the Constitution was intended for the whole China, it was neither extensively nor effectively implemented as the KMT was already fully embroiled in a civil war with the Communist Party of China by the time of its promulgation. Following the KMT's retreat to Taiwan in 1949, the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion gave the KMT government extra-constitutional powers.