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  • The "Deutschlandlied", or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" from 1949 to 1990. Since World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" are considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, and are inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins. The music was written by Austrian composer Joseph Haydn in 1797 as an anthem for the birthday of Austrian Emperor Francis II. In 1841, the German linguist and poet August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the lyrics of Das Lied der Deutschen to Haydn's melody, lyrics that were considered revolutionary at the time. The song is also well known by the beginning and refrain of the first stanza, "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles", but this has never been its title. The line "Germany, Germany above all" meant that the most important goal of 19th century German liberal revolutionaries should be a unified Germany that would overcome the perceived anti-liberal ethos of then-fragmented Germany.

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