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  • Emilio Famy Aguinaldo QSC PLH is the First Revolutionary President of the Philippines and led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution, and then in the Spanish-American War, and finally against the United States during the Philippine-American War. He was captured in 1901. In 1935 Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces on Bataan. He was arrested as a collaborationist after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty. He explained his action by saying, "I was just remembering the fight I led. We were outnumbered, too, in constant retreat. I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events. To me that seemed to be what was happening on Bataan, and it seemed like a good thing to stop."

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