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  • Hala-'l Badr is a volcano in north western Saudi Arabia situated at 27.25° N, 37.235° E. The volcano is of the cinder cone type, and it is situated on the NE corner of the Thadra table mountain in the al Jaww basin, an erosional divide between Harrats ar-Rahah and al 'Uwayrid. A number of scholars, including Charles Beke, Sigmund Freud, and Immanuel Velikovsky, have proposed that the biblical description of devouring fire on Mount Sinai refers to an erupting volcano; this possibility would exclude all the peaks on the Sinai Peninsula and Mount Seir, but would match a number of locations in north western Saudi Arabia, of which Hala-'l Badr is the most prominent. The equation of Sinai with Hala-'l Badr has been advocated by various scholars and authors, including Alois Musil in the early 20th century Jean Koenig in 1971 Colin Humphreys in 2003 Humphreys reports that a volcano in the region erupted in 640 CE, but it is not known exactly which volcano this was. It is possible that Badr erupted as recently as this, since the most recent lava flows in this area occurred in the al Jaww basin.

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