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  • The Joelma fire occurred on Friday February 1, 1974, in the Joelma Building, a 25-story building situated in downtown São Paulo, at 225 Avenue Nine of July. It is one of the most notable tragedies to have occurred in Brazil. A short-circuit in a faulty air-conditioner on the 11th floor ignited the fire at 8:50 AM. The building was primarily occupied by a single banking company, Banco Crefisul S/A, of which 756 employees were present. A person in an adjacent building reported the fire and first fire personnel arrived on the scene at 9:10 AM. Assistance was requested and further units arrived at 9:30 AM, by which time flames were nearly to the roof of the building. The large amount of combustible materials, including paper, plastics, electrical equipment and wooden walls and furniture, contributed to the fire spreading rapidly. Most importantly, the building had no emergency exits, fire alarms or fire sprinkler systems installed. Initial efforts led to the successful evacuation of some 300 employees before the heat and smoke became too overwhelming. Many remaining employees climbed onto balconies for air and a group of 171 individuals fled to the roof.

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