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  • Karl Germer, also known as Frater Saturnus, was a German occultist and the successor of Aleister Crowley as the Outer Head of the Order of Ordo Templi Orientis from 1947 until his death in 1962. He was born in Elberfeld, Germany and died in West Point, California. Germer studied in a university, worked as a military intelligence officer in the First World War and received first- and second class Iron Crosses for his service. In 1923 he sold his Vienna property and founded the publishing house Pansophia Verlag in Munich. Germer stayed with his wife Maria at the Abbey of Thelema from January 10, 1926 until sometime in February. In 1926, he moved to America with his wife and in 1927 founded the Thelema-Verlags-Gesellschaft, which published German versions of Crowley's works. Germer's visa gave out and he had to return to Germany in 1935. He was arrested by the Gestapo on 13 February 1935 for being an associate of the "High Grade Freemason Aleister Crowley". He was first held at the Columbia-Haus in Berlin and was then moved to the Esterwegen concentration camp.

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