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  • Königsberg is the former name of Kaliningrad in the Russian Federation. It was the easternmost large city in Germany until it was captured by the Soviet Union near the end of World War II. The literal meaning of the city's old name is 'King's Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was Königsbarg. Further names included Russian "Кёнигсберг" Old Prussian: Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Polish: Królewiec, and the modern Russian and current official name, Kaliningrad. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, and was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port, the city successively became the capital of their monastic state. From 1525 it was the capital of the Duchy of Prussia until the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701. From then until 1945, it was the regional capital of the Prussian and later German province of East Prussia.

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