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  • A substituted benzamide and a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) that is structurally related to procainamide, with gastroprokinetic and antiemetic effects. Metoclopramide exerts its prokinetic effect by antagonizing dopamine mediated relaxation effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. This enhances the response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle to cholinergic stimulation, thereby leading to an increase of gastric emptying into the intestines. Metoclopramide may also strengthen the lower esophagus sphincter, thereby preventing acid reflux. This agent antagonizes D2 dopamine receptors in chemoreceptive trigger zone (CTZ) of the medulla, thereby preventing nausea and vomiting.
  • Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems. It belongs to the group of medications known as dopamine-receptor antagonist. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to help with emptying of the stomach in people with delayed stomach emptying due to either diabetes or following surgery, and to help with gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is also used to treat migraine headaches. Common side effects include: feeling tired, diarrhea and feeling restless. More serious side effects include: movement disorder like tardive dyskinesia, a condition called neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and depression. It is thus rarely recommended that people take the medication for longer than twelve weeks. It is pregnancy category B in the United States and category A in Australia, meaning no evidence of harm has been found after it being taken by many pregnant women. In 2012, metoclopramide was one of the top 100 most prescribed medications in the United States. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

Freebase Commons Medicine /medicine

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