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  • Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city and metropolitan borough in the North East of England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne and centred 8.5 mi from the North Sea. The city is the most populous city in North East region and lies at the urban core of the Tyneside, the seventh most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom and the most populous in the North East. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and with Gateshead the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400 when it became a county of itself; a status it retained until becoming part of the Tyne and Wear metropolitan county in 1974. The city grew up in the area that was the location of the Roman settlement called Pons Aelius, and it owes its name to the castle built in 1080, by Robert, Duke of Normandy, "Curthose", William the Conqueror's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.

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