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  • Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom, in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, becoming subsequently an earldom in a unified English kingdom. The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber estuary. Northumbria was formed by Æthelfrith in central Great Britain in Anglo-Saxon times. At the beginning of the 7th century the two kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were unified.. At its greatest the kingdom extended at least from just south of the Humber, to the River Mersey and to the Forth — and there is some evidence that it may have been much greater. The later earldom came about when the southern part of Northumbria was lost to the Danelaw. The northern part at first retained its status as a kingdom but when it became subordinate to the Danish kingdom it had its powers curtailed to that of an earldom, and retained that status when England was reunited by the Wessex-led reconquest of the Danelaw. The earldom was bounded by the River Tees in the south and the River Tweed in the north. Wikipedia

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