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  • Sunderland is a city which lies at the heart of the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough, a part of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. It is situated at the mouth of the River Wear. Historically a part of County Durham, there were three original settlements on the site of modern-day Sunderland. On the north side of the river, Monkwearmouth was settled in 674 when Benedict Biscop founded the Wearmouth-Jarrow monastery. Opposite the monastery on the south bank, Bishopwearmouth was founded in 930. A small fishing village called Sunderland, located toward the mouth of the river was granted a charter in 1179. Over the centuries, Sunderland grew as a port, trading coal and salt. Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century. By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had grown to absorb Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth. A person who is born or lives around the Sunderland area is sometimes colloquially known as a Mackem.

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