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  • The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, commonly referred to as Ukraine or Soviet Ukraine, was a sovereign Soviet socialist state and one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. For most of its existence, it was economically and politically the second-most powerful republic of the Soviet Union, behind only the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state of Ukraine, although Ukraine's new constitution was only ratified on 28 June 1996. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of formerly Russian Crimea in 1954. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital.

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