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  • William Bradford Shockley Jr. was an American physicist and inventor. Shockley was the manager of a research group that included John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, the duo who invented the transistor. The three were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's efforts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming becoming known for electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor at Stanford and became a staunch advocate of eugenics.

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Year Award category Award winner Winning work Ceremony Achievement level Notes/Description
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  • "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
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  • "for the invention of the junction transistor, the analog and the junction field-effect transistor, and the theory underlying their operation."
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  • For his pioneering investigations and exposition of electric and magnetic properties of solid materials; in particular for his researches in the conduction of electricity by electrons and holes in semiconductors.

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