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  • Yuan Chonghuan, courtesy name Yuánsù or Zìrú, was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. Yuan Chonghuan was known to have excelled in artillery warfare and successfully incorporated Western tactics with those of the East. Yuan's military career reached its height when he defeated Nurhaci and the Manchu army in the first Battle of Ningyuan. Later, Yuan also managed to defeat Nurhaci's son and successor, Huang Taiji, and his 200,000 mostly Mongol soldiers. However, Yuan was eventually tortured and executed by the Chongzhen Emperor under false charges which Huang Taiji was believed to have deliberately planted against him.

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