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  • The Benesi–Hildebrand method is a mathematical approach used in physical chemistry for the determination of the equilibrium constant K and stoichiometry of non-bonding interactions. This method has been typically applied to reaction equilibria that form one-to-one complexes, such as charge-transfer complexes and host–guest molecular complexation. The theoretical foundation of this method is the assumption that when either one of the reactants is present in excess amounts over the other reactant, the characteristic electronic absorption spectra of the other reactant will be transparent in the collective absorption/emission range of the reaction system. Therefore, by measuring the absorption spectra of the reaction before and after the formation of the product and its equilibrium, the association constant of the reaction can be determined.