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  • Ammonium dinitramide is the ammonium salt of dinitraminic acid. ADN decomposes under heat to leave only nitrogen, oxygen, and water. The ions are the ammonium ion NH₄⁺ and the dinitramide N(NO₂)₂−. It was originally invented in the Soviet Union, but remained classified until it was discovered independently in the United States in 1989 at SRI International. SRI obtained US and international patents for ADN in the mid-1990s at which time scientists from the former Soviet Union revealed they had discovered ADN in the 1970s. It makes an excellent solid rocket oxidizer with a slightly higher specific impulse than ammonium perchlorate and more importantly, does not leave hydrogen chloride fumes. It decomposes into low molecular mass gases so it contributes to higher performance without creating excessive temperatures if used in gun or rocket propellants. The salt is prone to detonation under high temperatures and shock more so than the perchlorate. It can be synthesized from ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, and super concentrated sulfuric acid, to which a base other than ammonia must be added before the acid dinitramide decomposes. The final product is obtained by fractional crystallization.

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