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  • Permesta was a rebel movement in Indonesia, its name based on Piagam Perjuangan Semesta. It was declared by civil and military leaders in East Indonesia on 2 March 1957. The center of the movement was in Manado, and the movement was led by Colonel Ventje Sumual. Alexander Evert Kawilarang resigned his position as Indonesian military attache in the USA to become a general in the Permesta army. On 17 February 1958 the Permesta rebels joined forces with the PRRI rebels based in Sumatra who had declared a revolutionary government two days earlier. Following successful Central Government attacks on the PRRI based in Sumatra, the conflict swung to the east where the Permesta rebels were based. Central Government forces were able to capture the Permesta capital of Manado at the conclusion of June 1958. However, the Permesta rebels continued their resistance, fighting a guerrilla campaign against central government troops until the last remnants surrendered and were given an amnesty in 1961.

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