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  • Hafiz Hakki Pasha was a General of the Ottoman Empire military. Hafiz Hakki was a classmate of Enver Pasha, Mahmud Kâmil Pasha, and Fahreddin Pasha. He graduated from the Ottoman Military Academy second in his class and graduated from the Ottoman Military College first in his class on December 5, 1902. He was known as one of the "Freedom Heroes" in 1908. Hafiz Hakki fought in the Balkan wars in 1912 and then wrote books about how armies should be led. General Hakkı was one of the Ottoman commanders at the Battle of Sarikamis. At this battle, the large Ottoman army was utterly defeated by a smaller Russian force. During the retreat, the Ottoman army was nearly annihilated, mostly due to bitterly cold temperatures. Hafız was appointed by Enver Pasha to take over the remnants of the Ottoman army in the Caucasus in early 1915. He died of typhus in Erzerum in 1915 just a few weeks later.

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