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  • In business theory, the Graicunas formula is named after V.A. Graicunas, who gave a mathematical formula to explain the complexity of span of control if more subordinates are added to the executive. Every executive 'always measures the burden of his responsibility to control the subordinates in terms of single relationship between himself and his subordinates. Graicunas feels that in any group, the relations between executive and his subordinates cannot just be calculated based on single relationship alone. According to him, there also exists cross relationships which increase in mathematical proportion. The direct single relationship always increase in the same proportion as the number of subordinates. In such a case each addition to t h ~ I, group would only create a single direct relationship. But according to Graicunas there also exists direct group and cross relationships which increase very rapidly than the 1I1 increase in the number of subordinates. This is n~a because the addition of each \ !/ individual results in many cross and drrett group relationships as there are persons already in the group. Therefore, the number of relationships increases in exponential proportion.

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