<p>Podophyllotoxin (abbreviated as PPT), otherwise known as podofilox, is a non-alkaloid toxin lignan extracted from the roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum species. Under the trade name Condylox, a topical gel, it is used on the skin to treat external genital warts, caused by some types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). PPT and its derivatives display a wide selection in medical applications such as purgative, vesicant, antirheumatic, antiviral, and antitumor agents. These derivatives include etoposide, teniposide, and etopophos. Their anticancer activity has been heavily under study and used in various chemotherapies, including lung cancer, lymphomas, and genital tumors.
It is present at concentrations of 0.3 to 1.0% by mass in the rhizome of American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Another common source of podophyllotoxin is the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae).
It is synthesized biologically from two molecules of coniferyl alcohol by phenolic oxidative coupling and a series of oxidations, reductions and methylations.
The structure of podophyllotoxin was first elucidated in the 1930s. Podophyllotoxin bears a four consecutive chiral centers, labelled C-1</p>