<p>The Repatriation of Cossacks after the Second World War, also known as the Betrayal of the Cossacks, the Tragedy of Drau or the Massacre of Cossacks at Lienz, refers to the forced repatriation to the USSR of the Cossacks and ethnic Russians who were allies of Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
The repatriations were agreed to in the Yalta Conference; most of the repatriated people were Soviet citizens, although some claimed to have left Russia before the end of the Russian Civil War, or to have been born abroad. Those Cossacks and Russians were described as fascists who had fought the Allies in service to the Axis powers, yet the repatriations included non-combatant civilians as well. The Cossacks who fought the Allies did not see their war service as treason to the Russian motherland, but as an episode in the Russian Revolution of 1917 — their continuing fight against the Communist Government in Moscow in particular, and against Bolshevism in general. Nikolai Tolstoy describes this and other events resulting from the Yalta Conference as the “Secret Betrayal”, for going unpublished in the West. The event was also documented in earlier publications such as Nicholas Bethell's</p>