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  • Closed-loop poles are the positions of the poles of a closed-loop transfer function in the s-plane. The open-loop transfer function is equal to the product of all transfer function blocks in the forward path in the block diagram. The closed-loop transfer function is obtained by dividing the open-loop transfer function by the sum of one and the product of all transfer function blocks throughout the feedback loop. The closed-loop transfer function may also be obtained by algebraic or block diagram manipulation. Once the closed-loop transfer function is obtained for the system, the closed-loop poles are obtained by solving the characteristic equation. The characteristic equation is nothing more than setting the denominator of the closed-loop transfer function to zero. In control theory there are two main methods of analyzing feedback systems: the transfer function method and the state space method. When the transfer function method is used, attention is focused on the locations in the s-plane where the transfer function or zero. Two different transfer functions are of interest to the designer. If the feedback loops in the system are opened one speaks of the open-loop transfer function, while if the feedback loops are operating normally one speaks of the closed-loop transfer function. Wikipedia