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  • The 2012 East DR Congo conflict commenced in April 2012 when soldiers mutinied against the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Mutineers formed a rebel group called the March 23 Movement (M23), composed of former members of the rebel National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP). Former CNDP commander Bosco Ntaganda is accused of leading the mutiny. In March 2009, the CNDP signed a peace treaty with the government, in which it agreed to become a political party in exchange for the release of its imprisoned members. On 4 April 2012, it was reported that Ntaganda and 300 loyal troops defected from the DRC and clashed with government forces in the Rutshuru region North of Goma.